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In the graph above, the blue bars represent the observed instances of 0,1,2,3.. For example, the long blue bar tells us that there were 10 years with one mass shooting per year.
The red dotted curve is the Poisson distribution – these are the outcomes that one expects from a random process with an average value of 2 per year. If mass shootings are really occurring at random, then this suggests that they are extreme, hard-to-predict events, and are perhaps not the most relevant measure of the overall harm caused by gun violence.
So we don’t really know whether the fact that there are many of them in the year 2012 represents a trend or just a very unlucky year.
For example, if on average, sharks attack swimmers 3 times a year, then just by chance, you will expect to see years in which no swimmers are attacked, and years in which 7 swimmers are attacked. But, as I argue in my previous post, In particular, we vastly underestimate the likelihood of such streaks.
Some sources argue that mass shootings are on the rise, while others argue that the rate has stayed more-or-less constant.
Steven Pinker, author of The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined was recently interviewed by CNN.
that events are just as likely to occur at any time).
The mannequins, known as "Eye See" are manufactured by Italian company Almax and retail for £3,200 each.
To summarize: if the incidences of mass shootings in the US match a Poisson distribution, then this argues that the streaks (years with unusually high number of shootings) are expected due to chance.
If the data doesn’t fit a Poisson distribution, then this suggests that it violates one of the assumptions – either mass shootings are not independent events, or the rate is falling, or it’s on the rise. I downloaded data for mass shootings in the United States occurring from 1982 to 2012, from this comprehensive Mother Jones article on mass shootings.
But as much as we should try to prevent these horrific extreme events from taking place, we should not use them as the sole basis for making inferences that determine policy.
The outliers are a tragic part of the overall story, but we also need to pay attention to the rest of the distribution.